HECEZAMANLI:TürkçeİspanyolcaİtalyancaFransızcaKürtçe; VURGUZAMANLI:İngilizceRusçaAlmancaArapçaFarsça

SES BİLİNCİ-SES TEMELLİ DİL-TÜRKÇE TEMELLİ ÖĞRENİM

Üyelik Girişi
SES TEMELLİ DİL

İNGİLİZCENİN SES BİLGİSİ

 

 

HINTS

for

PRONUNCIATION

 

*/a/ vowel sound is between /ʌ/ and /ɑː/.

*/ɑː/ before /æ/, /ʌ/ and /a/.

*/aɪ/ = Start with /a/ and glide to /ɪ/.

*/ɔː/ before /ɒ/.

*/d/, /b/, /g/ are voiced (unaspirated) sounds.

*/dʒ/ = Stop the air stream with /d/, then release it into /ʒ/.

*/dʒ/ = voiced palato-alveolar affricate.

*/ɜː/ before /ə/.

*/eə/ = Start with /e/ and glide to /ə/.

*/eə/ is often reduced to /eː/.

*/əʊ/= Start with /ə/ and glide to /ʊ/.

*/iː/ before /ɪ/ and /e/.

*/j/ = voiced palatal semi-vowel.

*/j/ is close to /ɪ/.

*/r/ = The Tip of the Tongue moves back over the Palate.

*/r/, /w/, and /y/ sounds link vowels to vowels in rhythm groups.

*/t/, /p/, /k/ are voiceless (aspirated) sounds.

*/tʃ/ = Stop the air stream with /t/, then release it into /ʃ/.

*/tʃ/ = voiceless palato-alveolar affricate.

*/tʃ/, /dʒ/ = Pressure and Release = Affricates = more Fricative.

*/tʃ/, /dʒ/ sounds happen almost at the same time, ‘NO GLIDING’

*/uː/ before /ʊ/.

*/ʊə/ is often reduced to /ɔː/.

*/w/ is a very short duration of /ʊ/.

*/w/ is close to /ʊ/.

*70 per cent of English words take suffixes that do not shift stress.

*A diph-thong is a double vowel sound.

*A diph-thong is one syllable.

*A syllable is a beat in a word.

*About 70 per cent of English suffixes do not change syllable stress.

*About 70 percent of English words are one-syllable words.

*About 75 percent of the 2-syllable verbs have second-syllable stress.

*Accent = pronunciation, intonation, liaison, assimilation...

*Adjectives and adverbs are stressed.

*Affirmative and negative commands have rising/falling intonation.

*Affirmative and negative statements have rising/falling intonation.

*Affirmative and negative wh-questions have rising/falling intonation.

*Affirmative and negative yes/no questions have rising intonation.

*All stop consonants at the end of words are short and quiet.

*Almost 84 percent of English words are phonetically regular.

*Alveolars = /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /l/.

*American speakers usually pronounce all the syllables in long words.

*Amerikan, Irish and Scottish speakers usually use sounded /r/.

*Assimilation = /ɪm bed/

*Assimilation = Changing sounds.

*Bilabial, Dental, Alveolar, Palato-Alveolar, Palatal, Velar, Glottal.

*Bilabials = /p/, /b/, /m/, /w/.

*Blend consonant to consonant in rhythm groups, ‘one consonant’.

*Blend same consonant sounds together ‘like one long consonant’.

*Both Lips = /p/, /b/, /m/, /w/.

*Casual, rapid pronunciation /nd+z/ = /nz/ = /frenz, senz, spenz.../

*Casual, rapid pronunciation /sk+s/ = /sː/ = /desː, ɑːsː .../

*Centring Diph-thongs = /ɪə/, /ʊə/, /eə/.

*Classroom and bus driver are compound nouns.

*Compound nouns have stress on the first part.

*Conjunctions are not stressed.

*Connected Speech = Careful Speech (Formal-BBC), Rapid Speech.

*Demonstrative pronouns are stressed.

*Dentals = /θ/, /ð/.

*Diph-thongs combine two vowel sounds.

*Don’t give syllables equal stress in English.

*Don’t link words between rhythm groups.

*Duration (length) of the Vowel = short, long.

*Elision = /neks steɪʃn/

*Elision = Losing or disappearing sounds.

*Elision = Omission of /t/ and /d/.

*Elision is the omission of sounds or syllables in speech.

*Endings help you find the correct word stress.

*English Back Vowels: /uː/, /ɔː/, /ɒ/.

*English Central Vowels = /ɪ/, /ʌ/, /ə/, /ɜː/, /ɑː/, /ʊ/.

*English Front Vowels = /iː/, /e/, /æ/.

*English High Monoph-thongs / Vowels = /iː/, /ɪ/, /ʊ/, /uː/.

*English is a stress-timed language.

*English is called a stress timed language.

*English is considered to be a stress timed language.

*English is timed by the syllables we stress.

*English learners pronounce the ‘t’ letter, like /d/ for –ty words.

*English long vowels are tense sounds.

*English long vowels equal Turkish short vowels in duration / length.

*English Low Monoph-thongs / Vowels = /æ/, /ʌ/, /ɑː/, /ɒ/.

*English Mid Monoph-thongs / Vowels = /e/, /ə/, /ɜː/, /ɔː/.

*English short vowels are lax sounds.

*English, German, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Portuguese, Dutch...

*English, German, Danish, Swedish, Portuguese... are stress-timed.

*First, Secondary Stress and then ‘Primary Stress’ in British English.

*Focus on the tonic/stressed syllables and words in English.

*Function words are reduced or weakened. ‘asked them’  /ɑsːk təm/

*Function words are reduced or weakened. ‘date of birth’ /deɪtə bɜːθ/

*Function words have only one syllable.

*Glides = /w/, /j/.

*Helping (auxiliary) verbs are not stressed.

*Helping verbs are not stressed. ‘Would, Can...’ are helping verbs.

*High, long, loud syllables in English have tense vowel sounds.

*Horizontal Tongue Position = Front, Central, Back.

*I send you some flowers.  /aɪ ˈsen dʒə səm ˌflaʊəz/

*I sent you some flowers.  /aɪ ˈsen tʃə səm ˌflaʊəz/

*If a preposition is at the end of a question, it is strong and stressed.

*If your intonation is flat, you may sound rude and unfriendly.

*In American English ‘z’ is pronounced /ziː/.

*In British English ‘z’ is pronounced /zed/.

*In British English, the main stress comes after the secondary stress.

*In British English, the main stress second, the secondary stress first.

*In compound nouns, the first part has stress.

*In Diph-thongs, the first sound is longer and more stressed.

*In English, some words and syllables are strong and others are weak.

*In fast speech ‘do you’ is pronounced /dʒə/.

*In four-syllable verbs ending in –ate, stress the second syllable.

*In long sentences, syllables and words are in rhythm groups.

*In most verbs ending in two consonant, stress the last syllable.

*In phrasal verbs, the second part has stress.

*In RP, the letter ‘r’ is not pronounced unless it is followed by a vowel.

*In short answers ‘have, has, can, are, does... are strong and stressed.

*In three-syllable verbs ending in –ate, stress the first syllable.

*In three-syllable words ending in –y, stress the first syllable.

*In Turkish we have the sound /w/. /wur/

*In Turkish, every syllable has more or less equal emphasis.

*In two-word proper nouns, the second part has stress.

*In verbs ending in –ish, the syllable before –ish has stress.

*In words ending in -ive, the syllable before –ive has stress.

*Intonation = The ways of saying things / the way you say it.

*Intrusion = Adding or extra sounds.

*Intrusive /j/ = /ɪ/, /iː/.

*Intrusive /j/ = ‘she (y) is’.

*Intrusive /r/ = /ə/, /ɔː/.

*Intrusive /r/ = ‘America (r) and Asia.

*Intrusive /w/ = /ʊ/, /uː/.

*Intrusive /w/ = ‘go (w) off’.

*Intrusive Sounds = /r/, /w/, and /j/.

*It is important to learn the phonemic symbols.

*It is important to use intonation to sound polite and friendly.

*Jaw is fairly closed = /iː/, /ɪ/, /ʊ/, /uː/.

*Jaw is neutral = /e/, /ə/, /ɜː/, /ɔː/.

*Jaw is open = /æ/, /ʌ/, /ɑː/, /ɒ/.

*Juncture = ‘ice cream’/ ‘I scream’.

*Juncture = Linking or joining sounds.

*Labio-Dentals = /f/, /v/.

*Labio-velar = A speech sound made using the lips and soft palate.

*Labio-velar sound = /w/ in what, where, which...

*Learners whose first language is syllable-timed have some problems.

*Lexical words=Content words / Grammatical words=Function words.

*Liaison = Linking or joining sounds.

*Liaison = Linking or joining together of words in rhythm groups.

*Link words in the same rhythm groups in long sentences.

*Linking /r/ = ‘your English’, ‘you(r) name’, ‘far away’.

*Linking consonants to vowels makes the speech fluent...

*Linking means to ‘pronounce two words together’.

*Linking vowel to vowel, use the sounds /r/, /w/, and /y/.

*Lip Position = Spread, Neutral, Rounded.

*Liquids = /l/, /r/.

*Lower Lip - Upper Teeth = /f/, /v/.

*Manner of Articulation = How the Sound is Produced.

*Many native speakers do not use /ʊə/ diph-thong, use /ɔː/ instead.

*Many students have some problems with /ə/ sound.

*Many unstressed vowel sounds tend to become the schwa.

*Most –ed endings are sounds, not syllables.

*Most low, short, quiet syllables in English have /ə/ or /ɪ/.

*Most –s endings are sounds, not syllables.

*Most unstressed syllables, words in sentences have the /ə/ or /ɪ/.

*Most words in English take suffixes that do not shift stress.( %70 )

*Multiple interrogative sentences have rising/falling intonation.

*Nasals = /m/, /n/, /ŋ/.

*Nearly % 30 of the sounds you make when you speak English are /ə/.

*Nearly 16 percent of English words are phonetically ir-regular.

*Nearly 90 percent of the 2-syllable nouns have first-syllable stress.

*Negative words are stressed.

*Nouns and verbs are stressed.

*Numbers ending with –ty have stress on the first syllable.

*Numbers with –teen have the /t/ sound.

*Numbers with –ty have the /t/ sound like /d/. (flap /t/)

*Palatal = /j/.

*Palato-Alveolars = /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/.

*People from Australia and Wales use rising intonation for statements.

*People from Ireland use /t/ or /d/ for ‘th’.

*Phrasal verbs are difficult to understand because of linking.

*Place of Articulation = Where the Sound is Produced.

*Post-Alveolar = A little behind the alveolar position = /r/.

*Prepositions, articles, and pronouns are not stressed.

*Pronounce /θ/ and /ð/ correctly means ‘Real English’.

*Pronounce unstressed vowel sounds like /ə/ or /ɪ/.

*Pronunciation of –s and –ed endings is very important.

*Put a very short /ɪ/ in place of /j/.

*Put a very short /ʊ/ in place of /w/.

*Put the main stress on the last word of compound adverbs.

*Put the primary stress on the first noun in compound nouns.

*Question tags (certanity) have falling intonation.

*Question tags (uncertanity) have rising intonation.

*Rapid, casual speech /kt+s/ = /ks/ = /fæks, æks.../

*Rapid, casual speech /lɪsː, tesː, əkˈseps.../

*Regular stresses make rhythm in English.

*Rhotic Accent = The letter ‘r’ in the spelling is always pronounced.

*Rising/Falling intonation is in statements, commands, wh-questions.

*Sentence stress is an important factor in fluency.

*Sentence stress, rhythm groups and linking make the speech faster...

*Seven lax (short) vowels, Five tense (long) vowels in English.

*Some English dialects are characterized by a syllable-timed rhythm.

*Standard British English speakers often use silent /r/.

*Stress and unstress make rhythm in English sentences.

*Stress both words in adjective-noun phrases, ‘HARD WORK’.

*Stress in Diph-thongs = Stress the first sound /element.

*Stress in Diph-thongs = Unstress the second sound / element.

*Stress the syllable before ‘–ion’ ending in English.

*Stress the syllable -before words ending in ‘–ial, -ical, -ity’.

*Stress the syllable -before words ending in ‘–ion, -ic, -ics’.

*Stress timed = Having a regular rhythm of primary stresses.

*Stress timing = English words and sentences take shorter to say.

*Stress timing versus syllable timing means Real English.

*Stressed syllables are longer and clearer than unstressed ones.

*Strong = Unvoiced consonants / Weak = Voiced consonants.

*Syllabification = Syllabication = The division of words into syllables.

*Syllable timed = Having a regular rhythm of syllables.

*Syllable timing = Turkish words and sentences take longer to say.

*The /ɒ/ and /ɪ/ sounds combine to form the diphthong /ɔɪ/.

*The /æ/ and /ɪ/ sounds combine to form the diphthong /aɪ/.

*The /æ/ and /ʊ/ sounds combine to form the diphthong /aʊ/.

*The /ɔɪ/, /aɪ/ and /aʊ/ diph-thongs are wide sounds.

*The /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ diph-thongs are tense sounds.

*The /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ are short sounds.

*The /w/ is a short form of the sound /uː/.

*The ‘-est’ ending is pronounced /-ɪst/ in the superlative forms.

*The –ate suffix is unstressed in English. ‘DEmonstrate, INdicate...’

*The auxiliary verb is at the end of a sentence is stressed.

*The central vowel /ə/ is a special sound in English.

*The diphthong /əʊ/ has two sounds. First say /ə/ long,then add /ʊ/.

*The double consonant sound /tʃ/ is always short.

*The final –es is pronounced /ɪz/.

*The final spelling ‘r’ of a word may be pronounced or not.

*The letter ‘e’ at the end of a word is not pronounced. (magic ‘e’)

*The letter ‘r’ is not sounded as the following sound is a consonant.

*The letters ‘ch’ are often pronounced /tʃ/.

*The letters ‘ge’ and ‘gi’ are often pronounced /dʒ/.

*The letters ‘ng’ can be pronounced /ŋ/,/ŋg/ or /ndʒ/.

*The lips are neither spread nor rounded for central vowels.

*The number of stresses is very important in an English sentence.

*The pronunciation of the –ed adjective endings /t/, /d/, /ɪd/.

*The pronunciation of the –s and –es verb endings /s/, /z/, /ɪz/.

*The reduced = unstressed syllable usually takes the schwa sound.

*The schwa = shwa /ə/ is in weak or unstressed syllables.

*The schwa = shwa /ə/ is the most frequent vowel sound in English.

*The schwa = shwa /ə/ sound is the most common vowel in English.

*The smallest or weakest English vowel sound is /ə/ schwa = shwa.

*The sound /ɑː/ is spelt with the letters ‘ar’.

*The sound /æ/ is spelt with the letter ‘a’.

*The sound /ð/ is voiced. (Vocal cords are moving)

*The sound /ʃ/ is often spelt ‘sh’.

*The sound /ɜː/ is a long schwa = shwa.

*The sound /ɜː/ is spelt with the letters ‘er’.

*The sound /ɜː/ is spelt with the letters ‘ir’.

*The sound /ɜː/ is spelt with the letters ‘ur’.

*The sound /əʊ/ is spelt with the letter ‘o’.

*The sound /ʌ/ is usually spelt with the letter ‘u’.

*The sound /w/ is sometimes spelt with the letter ‘u’.

*The sound /θ/ is voiceless. (Vocal cords are not moving)

*The sound of the –d and –ed verb endings /t/, /d/, /ɪd/.

*The sound of the –s and –es plural endings /s/, /z/, /ɪz/.

*The sound schwa /ə/ can be represented by any vowel.

*The stressed syllable (vowel) = the accented syllable (vowel).

*The stressed words are long, loud and high.

*The tonic syllable = The stressed syllable.

*The two same consonants are ‘not pronounced two times’.

*The unstressed syllables are low, short, and quiet.

*The voiced /ð/ occurs in function words and family relation ones.

*The voiceless /θ/ occurs in content words.

*The vowel sound in the final syllable is often /ə/.

*The vowel sounds are before /b/, /d/, and /g/ long, at the end.

*The vowel sounds are before /p/, /t/, and /k/ short, at the end.

*The vowel sounds in bus / ago are similar. The first one is ‘stressed’.

*There are about fifty function words (unstress, weak) in English.

*There are eight diph-thongs in English.

*There are many standards and varieties of English.

*There are very short pauses between rhythm groups.

*This, that, these, and those are stressed.

*Thought groups are meaningful groups of words.

*Thousands of words in English end in –ion.

*Three diph-thongs gliding to /ə/ = /ɪə/, /ʊə/, /eə/.

*Three diph-thongs gliding to /ɪ/ = /eɪ/, /ɔɪ/, /aɪ/.

*Throat = /h/.

*To make /n/ and /ŋ/, the air comes out through your nose.

*To sound polite and friendly, intonation goes up or down, not flat.

*Tongue - Gum Ridge = /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /l/.

*Tongue - Hard Palate = /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /r/, /j/.

*Tongue - Soft Palate = /k/, /g/, /ŋ/.

*Tongue - Teeth = /θ/, /ð/.

*Turkish is a syllable-timed language.

*Turkish is called a syllable timed language.

*Turkish is timed by the syllables we give equal stress.

*Turkish learners tend to give English syllables equal stress.

*Turkish learners tend to speak English with a syllable-timed rhythm.

*Turkish students have problems with the /θ/, /ð/, /w/ sounds.

*Turkish words are often stressed on the final or penultimate syllable.

*Turkish, French, Italian, Spanish, Finnish... are syllable-timed.

*Two diph-thongs gliding to /ʊ/ = /əʊ/, /aʊ/.

*Unstressed syllables often contain the schwa vowel sound.

*Unstressed syllables often have the weak schwa vowel sound /ə/.

*Use clear consonants ‘cu(tt)ing, co(nn)ect...’

*Velars = /k/, /g/, /ŋ/.

*Vertical Tongue Position = High, Mid, Low.

*Vowel Reduction = /ɪ/, /ə/, /ʊ/.

*Vowel Reduction = Changing sounds.

*We nearly always pronounce the letters ‘ch’ as /tʃ/.

*West Indian English is a syllable-timed language. (French, Turkish...)

*When a word ends in /d/, the next word begins with /y/ = /dʒ/.

*When a word ends in /t/, the next word begins with /y/  = /tʃ/.

*When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking.

*When we speak fast, we use contractions and weak forms.

*When you make /ŋ/, your tongue is further back in your mouth.

*Wh-question words (what, which, how...) are stressed.

*With back vowels, the lips are more or less rounded.

*With central vowels, the lips are in a neutral position.

*With front vowels, the lips are spread.

*Words ending in /t/ or /d/, ‘-ed’ endings are pronounced /ɪd/.

*Words ending in –er, -or, -ly doesn’t change the stressed syllable.

*Words ending in –ion have the stressed syllable ‘before –ion’.

*Words ending in noisy consonants, ‘-s’ endings are pronounced /ɪz/.

*Words ending in voiced sounds, ‘-ed’ endings are pronounced /d/.

*Words ending in voiced sounds, ‘-s’ endings are pronounced /z/.

*Words ending in voiceless sounds, ‘-ed’ endings are pronounced /t/.

*Words ending in voiceless sounds, ‘-s’ endings are pronounced /s/.

*Working on sound/spelling relationships is very important.

*Working on syllabification and word stress makes the speech fluent...

*You pronounce the letter ‘t’, like /t/ or like /d/.

 

sesletim@hotmail.com


Yorumlar - Yorum Yaz


Ziyaret Bilgileri
Aktif Ziyaretçi1
Bugün Toplam10
Toplam Ziyaret177518